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Apprendre le Kabyle • Afficher le sujet - LES PARTICULES DE DIRECTION
Page 1 sur 1

LES PARTICULES DE DIRECTION

MessagePosté: 30 Juin 2009, 00:04
par aghiles
1.Les particules "d" et "id":

Exemples: Awi "d" aman; Awi ten "id"

Ces particules "d" et "id" doivent être écrites seules.Il ne faut pas les rattacher au verbe (awi),au pronom personnel (ten),ou à une quelconque autre partie de la phrase.Il n'est pas juste d'écrire,par exemple,awid aman,ou bien awi tenid.

Autres exemples:
yura d, yusa d,inna d,bbwḍen d,uγalen d,ibbwi t id,yuγ it id,ibbwi ten id,yuγ itent id.

On ajoute parfois un "e" à la particule de direction "d" pour en faciliter la lecture:

ibbweḍ ed, ikcem ed, ikker ed, iffer ed,iffeγ ed,etc.

Ces particules "d" et "id" peuvent se trouver avant le verbe:

mi d ikcem,mi d yuγal,asmi d ibbweḍ,
mi t id bbwin,asmi tent id uγeγ,etc.


2.Les particules "n" et "in":

Exemples: Aaddi "n" s axxam; awi t "in" yidek.

"n" et "in" doivent également être écrites seules,sans être rattachées aux autres parties.

On ajoute parfois "e" à la particule "n" pour en faciliter la lecture.

Exemples:

ibbweḍ en, ikcem en s axxam, ṭṭef en tabalizt agi,ax en tabṛatt agi.

Les particules "n" et "in" peuvent également se trouver avant le verbe:

asmi"n" ikcem s axxam nnwen ur k "in" yufi ara.


Autres exemples:

yusa"d"γurneγ,
yusa"n"γurwen,
lliγ di ssuq,yusa "n" umeddakwel iw,
ifka ten "id"
ibbwi yas t "in"
la "d" issawal baba,
ur "d" yusi ur "d" iceggaε,
ayen "d" iqqimen,
ayen i "d" iqqimen,
ansi "d" tettagwmem?
amek i "n" tṛuḥem?
qim ar "d" yaweḍ,
awi "d" aman,
awi yas "d" aman,
ibbwi yak ten "in",
ad ak ten "in" awiγ

tazelgha n tnila (particule de direction )

MessagePosté: 11 Déc 2009, 13:03
par many
Azul a yamdakkul
je voudrais juste apporter une petite correction à votre leçon. c'est vrai que les particules de direction s'ecrivent seulent en kabyle, mais elles sont rattachées aux verbes par un trait d'union (Tizdit).
exp: yussa-d, iruḥ-d
yussa-n, iruh-n

MessagePosté: 11 Déc 2009, 17:10
par aghiles
Azul agma,

Tsidets agma,tanemirt.

MessagePosté: 11 Déc 2009, 18:57
par izemrasen
Azul

Tanemmirt-nwen ay atmaten

En tamazight en général et en Kabyle en particulier, on a la copule /d/ qui, une fois placée devant un nom, exprime l’attribut.

Exemple : d aberkan « il est noir ». D taberkant « elle est noire ».
N.B. Cette copule /d/ est séparée du nom.

La particule prédicative /d/ s’emploie suivant les 4 cas suivants :

Cas1. Avec verbe afin d’introduire l’attribut.
Exemple : ili-k d argaz « sois un homme ».
Cas2. Pour exprimer une existence.
Exemple : d azγel « il y a de la chaleur ».
Cas3. Devant l’épithète d’un nom indéterminé.
Exemple : iwala argaz d ameqr'an « il vit un homme grand ».
Cas4. Dans une proposition sans verbe.

Exemple:.

a- d amectuh' « il est petit » (sujet sous-entendu).
b- argaz agi d amectuh' « cet homme est petit » (sujet exprimé).

Dans le cas b :
b1- Devant l’attribut, le sujet est mis à l’état libre : aqcic d ameq°r'an « le garçon est grand ».
b2. Après l’attribut, le sujet est mis à l’état d’annexion : d ameq°r'an weqcic « le garçon est grand ».

Particules de direction /d/ et /n/.

Ces deux particules /d/ et /n/ donnent au verbe le sens de direction. La particule /d/ donne le sens de : « vers la personne qui parle ». La particule /n/ donne le sens de : « vers la personne à qui l’on parle aussi bien que vers le lieu dont il est question entre les 2 interlocuteurs ». Elles sont liées au verbe par un trait d’union.

Exemples :

iruh’ « il est parti ».
iruh’-ed « il est venu là où je suis (où nous sommes).
Iruh’-en « il est venu là où tu es (où vous êtes ».

N.B. Après un affixe régime direct, ces 2 particules se transforment en /id/ et /in/.

Exemple : awi-t-id « apporte le ici » et awi-t-in « apporte les ici ».

Timensiwin !

MessagePosté: 11 Déc 2009, 19:09
par aghiles
Azul agma izemrasen,

Je crois que tu as fait le tour du sujet,ça va éclaircir certains points aux apprenants de la langue.

Tanemirt.

MessagePosté: 24 Juil 2011, 20:22
par zaki